Sources and Reference Material


1. Indian Muslims and Pakistan, Vir Sanghvi, Counterpoint, Sunday 7th March 2004,00300001.htm

2. The eight conflicts that the Indian armed forces have been involved in since 1947 are the four conflicts with Pakistan described in Chapter 11, the long running lowgrade war of cross border terrorism from Pakistan described in Chapter 12; Operation Vijay against the Portuguese occupation of Goa in 1961, the India-China war of 1962, and Operation Pawan, the Indian peacekeeping operations in Northern Sri Lanka in the late 1980s.

3. Pak population will swell to 349m by 2050, Syed Asif Ali and Muddassir Rizvi KARACHI/ISLAMABAD: The Daily Jang, Pakistan, September 28th 2003, online edition

4. Who Owns Pakistan? Website by Shahid-ur-Rehman

5. Human conditions not improving in Pakistan: report, By Nadeem Malik, The Daily Jang, Pakistan, December 5th 2003, online edition,

6. National stock-taking, M B Naqvi, The Daily Jang, Pakistan, August 14th 2002, online edition,

7. Op-ed: Our missing middle, by Ravian, The Daily Times,
Pakistan, August 1st 2003, online edition,

8. Television sets per 1000 people - Pakistan has 22 TV sets per 1000 population

9. Pakistan, The Press for Change, Kavita Menon, Special Report According to London's Financial Times, the combined circulation of Pakistan's entire English language press is no more than 150,000 in a population of 134 million.

10. Reforming Pakistan's madrassas, Musharraf determined to change Muslim schools' 'indoctrination', By Tom Brokaw Anchor, NBC News

11. Donors want poverty trends reversed, By Ihtashamul Haque, The Dawn, Pakistan, November 6th 2003, online edition,

12. - a document published by the statistics division, Government of Pakistan, page 2.

13. Deplorable schools angering Pakistanis Issue at the top of voters' agenda Juliette Terzieff, Chronicle Foreign Service, Thursday, October 10, 2002, The San Francisco Chronicle, online edition,

14. What and wherefore of Madaris, A. B. S. Jafri, The Dawn, Pakistan, 20th January 2003, online edition,

15. Medievalism and Pakistan's madrassas, Nadeem Iqbal, The Asia Times online edition, 29 Aug 02

16. The madrassas and the have-nots, Dr Tariq Rahman, Professor of Linguistics and South Asian Studies, Quaidi-Azam University, Islamabad, The News - Jang : Opinion, Saturday September 08, 2001 - "At the time of the partition there were 137 madrassas.In 1950 there were 210 of them while in 1971 they increased to 563. Nowadays there are at least 7000 of hem. Out of the registered ones - and most are still unregistered - the Barelvis have 1400; the Deobandis 550 and the Ahl-e-Hadith 347. These are the Sunni madrassas"

17. The Pakistani Time Bomb, Alexei Alexiev, Center for Security Policy

18. Pamela Constable, The Washington Post, September 19th 2001, online edition,

19. Madrassas: A make-believe world. By Aijazz Ahmed

20. "The Subtle Subversion - The State of Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan", A.H. Nayyar and Ahmed Salim,

21. Conflict and Violence in the Educational Process, Khurshid Hasanain and A. H. Nayyar,

22. Others, as we know them, Kamila Hyat, The Daily Jang, Pakistan, August 10th 2003, online edition

23. THE MENACE OF EDUCATION What Are They Teaching In Pakistani Schools Today? by Pervez Hoodbhoy,

24. Zobaida says anti-India material from curricula to be deleted, Monday March 08, 2004 (1520 PST)

25. A not-so-subtle subversion, Shireen M Mazari,

26. Pakistan’s Economic Dilemma, Sreedhar, Sr. Fellow, IDSA, June 18, 1998,

27. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Non Proliferation Project: Countries Possessing Ballistic Missiles

28. Missile Overview, Gaurav Kampani, Nuclear Threat Initiative, April 2004


30. K. Subrahmanyam, The Pretence is Over - Pak Link with Nuclear Black Market, Editorial, The Times of India, Feb 1st 2004

31. China Nuclear Milestones, The Risk Report Volume 6 Number 6 (November-December 2000),
U.S. intelligence discovers China gave Pakistan a tested nuclear bomb design.

32. Strategic Affairs Analysis, No 003/Issue Aug 16
"According to a report leaked out of the Los Alamos Nuclear Laboratory, in the autumn of 1998, the air samples acquired over Chagai by US intelligence agencies, contained traces of plutonium. Pakistan, around the period of the tests, had not had time to develop a warhead from the minimal quantities of plutonium generated by the research reactor at PINSTECH. Therefore, there is evidence that the devices tested were either plutonium supplied by non-Pakistani sources, or the device itself was not a Pakistani warhead but that of another nuclear weapons state which needed to validate a modernized warhead, given the moratorium on nuclear testing"

33. HOW POOR ARE THE POOR, By KHURRAM FAHEEM, Feb 03 - 09, 2003,

34. Jobs or jihad, thats the question, Shalini Chawla, Fri 19 July 2002,

35. Truth about Zia's 'status quo' era, By Special Correspondent,

36. Kidnapped Nation, Richard Behar, FORTUNE, Monday, April 29, 2002,

37. When will Pakistan get an apology?, Shaheen Sehbai, 6 Aug 2002

38. The confusion in our minds, By Zubeida Mustafa,

39. John Lancaster, Washington Post Foreign Service Tuesday, April 8, 2003; Page A29

40. Musharraf and the Jihad industry, Pervez hoodbhoy

41. Cross-Cultural Face-Negotiation: An Analytical Overview" by Professor Stella Ting-Toomey,

42. "The Arab Mind", Raphael Patai

43. Testimony of Professor Stephen P. Cohen, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, January 28th 2004, India and Pakistan: Steps towards Rapproachement.

44. India-Pakistan in War & Peace, by J N Dixit, review in the Asia Times

45. Islam and Secularization,


47. No intention to enter into nuclear race: Musharraf,

48."The Encyclopedia of Land Warfare in the 20th Century", Part 5, Asian Wars of Imperial Succession, Brigadier Shelford Bidwell, Pages 164-173, Leisure Books, Salamander Books Ltd 1977, 27 Old Gloucester St, London WC1N 3AF, UK

49. We must hang together, I M Mohsin

50. Prospects for social cohesion

51: Fall of Dhaka-the true face, Brig (r) A Q Anjum

52. Fall of Dhaka: the true face-2, Brig (r) A Q Anjum

53. Pakistan: Transition to Democracy?" 3rd Oct 2002, report from the International Crisis Group,

54. Speech Archive, History Channel
On December 17, 1971, 90,000 West Pakistani troops surrendered to Indian forces in Bangladesh and the war came to an end.

55. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001. India-Pakistan Wars
Pakistan lost its eastern half, an army of 100,000 soldiers,

56. Text of speech by General Pervez Musharraf,

57. DEFENCE NOTES, The Pakistan Army From 1965 to 1971, Maj (Retd) AGHA HUMAYUN AMIN,

58. Martial Mind - Pakistan Officer Corps thought-process about Defence, Columnist Hamid Hussain explores the Pakistan military mind-set.

59. How poor are the poor, Khurram Faheem


61. International Perspective on Family Violence in Pakistani Society, Zafar Abbas, Social Work Group, Pains Welfare Trust International, Karachi, Pakistan


63 Islamic Pakistan illusions and reality, Abdus Sattar Ghazali,

64. Ethnic Cleansing in Pakistan during Partition: A Preliminary Statistical Analysis, Sridhar N.,

65. Pak army siphoning off US aid in Swiss accounts, Times of India, online edition, SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 10, 2002

66. Some obstacles in normalization, M. H. Askari

67. Jihad and the United States, By M. Asghar Khan,

68. Massacres of shias in Iraq & Pakistan – the background, by B.Raman, Paper no. 941, 03. 03. 2004

69. Pakistan's Taliban Problem, By Reuel Gerecht, Monday, October 29, 2001, The Weekly Standard,


71. The Friday Times online, 28th March 2003 28 March 2003



74 The Root of India-Pakistan Conflicts, Rajiv Malhotra, Monday, February 11, 2002,

75. Among the Believers, V.S. Naipaul, Picador, 1981, page 87, page 102, page 112, page 116, page 159

76. Jinnah's Vision of Pakistan, Sharif al Mujahid

77. P.H. Reddy, Demographer, The Times of India, 8th April 2003.

78. Explore Pakistani culture:
"Pakistani culture can be called as "Mixed Culture". Although the majority of people in Pakistan are Muslims by birth and faith, there is a strong influence of Hindu culture on the present Pakistani culture. The shadows of this influence are quite visible on the marriage ceremonies and festivals like "Basant"

79. Islamic Revolution: the only possible future for Pakistan, Dr Kalim Siddiqui, Crescent International,
Sunday August 5, 2001

80. Military in the Power structure of Pakistan, Mohammad Waseem:

81. Social forces and ideology in the making of Pakistan, By Hamza Alavi, Prof Karrar Hussain Memorial Lecture Nov 2, 2002, The Friday Times, Dec 6-12, 2002

82. Understanding Political Islam, M.A.Hussain, Wed Jun 25 '03

83. The reality of an Islamic state, Asad Latif JAN 21, 2002,1870,98039,00.html

84 Political Authority in Classical Islamic Thought, Tamara Sonn

85. An Advanced History of India, Vol 1, (Lahore, 1980), p 391), Majumdar, Raychaudhuri and Datta,

86."Pakistan Papers", Mani Shankar Aiyer, UBSPD, 1994, page 10.

87. MILITARY INVOLVEMENT IN THE POLITICAL 'DEVELOPMENT' OF PAKISTAN AND ITS RATIONALE, Brig. S.K Raychaudhuri VSM (Retd), ARTRAC [Army Training Command] magazine, PINNACLE Vol 2 No 2 October 2003.

88. Know thy enemy!, Masud Akhtar Shaikh,

89. Change the Rupee into Riyal or Dinar, Ahmed Quraishi

90. Soldiers in business, "Power, Perks, Prestige and Privileges: Military's economic activities in Pakistan -
Dr Ayesha Siddiqa-Agha

91. Pakistanis Question Perks of Power, By John Lancaster Washington Post Foreign Service, Friday, November 22, 2002;

92. Robert Fisk: Farewell to democracy in Pakistan, 26 October 2001

93. Whose land is it anyway? Irfan Husain,

94. Rightsizing of the Armed Forces

95. The Weekly Independent, Issue #48, May 23-29, 2002

96. Military Inc. Dominates Life in Pakistan, PAUL WATSON, TIMES STAFF WRITER

97. Oped by Dr. Farrukh Saleem

98 Official Web Page of the National Logistic Cell of Pakistan,

99. A first hand list of Army land lords, Special SAT Report

100. Pakistan struggles with poverty reduction, Nadeem Iqbal
In its "World Development Indicators-2002", the World Bank says that 31 percent of Pakistan's population lives off $1 a day, while the percentage of people living below $2 a day is a staggering 84.7 percent.

101. Era of mullah coddling is over, Najam Sethi, The Friday Times, Pakistan

102. The Pakistan army and Islamic radicals, By Amos Perlmutter, The Washington Times, November 17, 1999, reproduced on the website of the Indian Embassy

103. Pakistan-India: Same game, new rules, Syed Saleem Shahzad

104. B.Raman, quoted in the online portal Rediff:

105. Interview with Nawaz Sharif, Weekly Independent, Vol 1, No 7, March 7-13, 2002

106. Pakistan's privileged army Quest for hegemony at home, abroad, G. Parthasarathy

107. The rogue army of Pakistan, G. Parthasarathy, Financial Daily from THE HINDU group of publications Thursday, Jan 02, 2003

108. What if Pervez Musharraf is killed, Pramit Pal Chaudhuri,0008.htm

109. Indian Army History,

110. Indian Navy History,

111. Indian Air Force History,

112. KASHMIR AND PARTITION OF INDIA (Part II) by Prof. Ram Krishen K. Bhatt

113. Letter from Maharaja Hari Singh to Lord Mountbatten on the eve of Pak invasion on J&K in 1947.

114. Virtual Bangladesh: History: Eyewitness accounts, Rafiqul Islam, Professsor Rafiqul Islam

115. Case Study: Genocide in Bangladesh, 1971

116. Calling the Indian Army Chief's Bluff, Lt Gen (Retd) JAVED NASIR

117. Lessons from Kargil, Gen VP Malik PVSM, AVSM (Retd)

118. Terrorists plan to pose as disabled travelers Pakistani nationals behind U.S. plot, warns new Homeland Security memo, Paul Sperry

119. Pakistan's Jihad Culture, Jessica Stern, Foreign Affairs, November/December 2000

120. Jihadi Groups, Nuclear Pakistan and the New Great Game, M. Ehsan Ansari, published by the Strategic Studies Institute, page 5

121. THE ROVING EYE Jihad: 'The ultimate thermonuclear bomb', Pepe Escobar

122. Pakistan-India: Same game, new rules, Syed Saleem Shahzad, Asia Times Online, Nov 27th 2003

123. The Taliban's Pakistan connection, Excerpts from a Sept. 15 article by Tariq Ali, in The Independent (UK)

124. Pakistan's Role in the Kashmir Insurgency, Peter Chalk

125. The spirit of Gandhar, Shahid Nadeem

126. Musharraf and the Jihad industry, Pervez hoodbhoy

127. Jihad: 'The ultimate thermonuclear bomb', Pepe Escobar.

128. Indo-Pakistan Talks Myths, Delusions and Fantasies!! Guest Column: Arindam Banerji, South Asia Analysis Group, Paper no. 710, 09. 06. 2003

129. The Truth about Kashmir, a website maintained by the Indian Army's 15th Corps.

130. PROFILE OF A MILITANT: Based on the statistics available the average life span of a militant / mercenary does not exceed 20 months from the time he returns to J&K to participate in the so called Jihad. A period in which he is a fugitive, moving from one hide to another, trying to avoid contact with the security forces

131. Harvest of Terror, By Ghazala Wahab,

132. Beyond Control, Indrani Bagchi with Anil Padmanabhan. India Today, December 8th 2003

133. Pakistani Role in Terrorism Against the U.S.A, Narayanan Komerath, BHARAT RAKSHAK MONITOR - Volume 5(2) September-October 2002

134. The Politics of Islam in Pakistan, K.P.S. Gill, The Pioneer, March 2, 2001

135. Musharraf eludes assassination bid - Dec 14th 2003,

136. Musharraf escapes second assassination attempt,

137. Musharraf admission on secrets, BBC News online, Friday, 23 January, 2004, 18:30 GMT

138. Assassination 'windfall' for Musharraf, Syed Saleem Shahzad

139. Pakistan has 18 million illegal firearms-report, quoting Reuters Alertnet
About 18 million firearms are held illegally in Pakistan in addition to the two million weapons that are legally registered.. The main concentrations of illegal arms in Pakistan are in semi-autonomous tribal regions bordering Afghanistan. Many of the weapons have been imported from Afghanistan, awash with arms after more than 23 years of war. Guns are also produced locally, notably in the tribal town of Darra Adamkhel, which is famous for imitation weapons from all over the world. The Dawn report said Darra Adamkhel still had around 900 arms factories, all of them illegal and about 150 shops selling arms and ammunition

140. Hon. Frank Pallone, JR. in the House of Representatives, Monday, October 3, 1994

141. Heroin, Taliban & Pakistan, by B.Raman,


143. Pakistan Caught in Web of Evidence, By Douglas Frantz, Paul Watson and Mubashir Zaidi,,1,1265066.story?coll=la-home-headlines

144. Warhead Blueprints Link Libya Project to Pakistan Figure By WILLIAM J. BROAD and DAVID E. SANGER, Published: February 4, 2004,

145. Confronting the Nuclear Threat America Didn't Want to Be True, By DAVID E. SANGER, Published:
February 8, 2004

146. IC 814 Hijack,

147. Plane hijackers received new weapons in Afghanistan: French hostages, Agence France-Presse, Sunday, January 2, 2000

148. Aziz hand seen in Kandahar hijacking, Public Affairs Magazine,

149. Pakistan's role in hijacking, By Samuel Baid

150. 20 Most Wanted Terrorists that India has demanded Pakistan to extradite back to India, Kashmir Herald on the Web, Volume 3, No. 6 - November 2003 -

151. Dawood in Karachi, admits Pakistan, September 21, 2003 15:13 IST,

152. Pak embassy official in Nepal held selling fake Indian currency, PRESS TRUST OF INDIA,

153. Rahul Bedi, April 4, 2002 from the Asia Times:

154. International currency racket busted, Extracted from 'The Pioneer', New Delhi, Dated 24th September 2002 -

155. How did the word "Pakistan" come into existence?

156. "A Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi and English" Author: John T. Platts, ISBN: 81-215-0098-2, Publisher: (Indian Edition) Mushiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. Page: 218.

157. Stepehen Cohen, Financial Times (London,England) January 16, 2004, Friday Europe Edition 1#

158. The Nation and State of Pakistan, Stephen Cohen

159. Pakistan Human Rights ignored in the ‘War on Terror’, Executive summary,

160. Pakistan Surrenders The Taliban control the border with Afghanistan, by Daveed Gartenstein- Ross & Bill Roggio ,10/02/2006, Volume 012, Issue 03

No comments: